Page 1 - Introduction
Because of the great diversity of people and culture, Nigeria has distinguished herself over the centuries in the field of arts. Nigerian versatility in art is so great that it is generally felt that all African nations should view Nigeria as the principal trustee of the most durable fruits of black artistic genius. It is not precisely known when the first works of Nigerian art reached the outside world, but in 1897, following a British punitive expedition to Benin, over 2,000 Benin bronzes and ivories were shipped to England and later dispersed all over Europe and America.
The oldest sculptures found in Nigeria were from the Southern Zaria and Benue areas of central Nigeria. They consist of terracotta figures and figurines made by a people who achieved a high degree of cultural sophistication. These sculptures, together with other cultural elements, have been named the Nok Culture. Evidence shows the Nok people had knowledge of iron smelting and adorned themselves with tin and stone beads, earrings, noserings and bracelets. The Nok Culture is dated between 500 B.C. and 200 A.D. The next known phase of Nigerian cultural evolution was Igbo Ukwu bronze casting. Found in the small village of Igbo-Ukwu, near Awka, the casts date from the 9th Century A.D. They first came to light in 1938 and consist of staff heads, crowns, breastplates, pendants, ornaments, anklets, wristlets and chains. About the same time the Igbo-Ukwu people were casting bronze, the ancient Ife people were also producing works in bronze, copper, and terracotta. In the first quarter of this Century, Ife works caused a great stir among world art critics and historians who were unaccustomed to such naturalism in African art. The best known Nigerian artworks are the Benin Antiquities. Legend recounts how the Benin people learned the art of bronze casting from Ile-Ife around 1400 A.D. Oba Ogunta, the sixth King of Benin, is credited with having encouraged this art in Benin.
Nigeria’s cultural heritage is woven from threads of history and diversity, legend and conquest. Tourists visiting the country will gain insights to a glorious past as well as a promising future, set amid the natural beauty of this diverse country. From rain forests in the south, broad savanna woodlands in the center to a semi-desert region in the north, Nigeria offers a remarkable range of physical beauty in her land and hospitality of her people, ready to be enjoyed by the tourist fortunate enough to choose this land of ancient empires as their travel destination.
Nigeria is a vast country with a population of about 120 people covering about 923,768 sq. km of landmass, located wholly within the tropics. The country aptly described as the ‘Giant of Africa’ is richly endowed with ecological and cultural resources, which are of universal recognition. The richness and diversity of the Nigerian culture is a manifestation of the socio-cultural differences of the over 250 ethnic groups that inhabit the land for ages.
Tourism is one of the growing sectors of the Nigerian economy. The industry was accorded priority status in 1990 when the National Tourism Policy was launched. The main thrust of Government policy on tourism was to generate foreign exchange earnings, create employment opportunities, promote rural enterprises and national integration among other things.
In recognition of the immense contributions of tourism to the national economy, the country’s Vision 2010 set the year 2005 as the nation’s year of tourism. The obvious implication of this development is that tourism policies and programs will now be aimed at making Nigeria the “Ultimate Tourism Destination in Africa” by the year 2005.
Page 2 - Nigeria’s Appeal To Tourists
Nigeria offers a wide variety of tourist attractions such as extended and roomy river and ocean beaches ideal for swimming and other water sports, unique wildlife, vast tracts of unspoiled nature ranging from tropical forest, magnificent waterfalls, some new rapidly growing cities, and climatic conditions in some parts particularly conducive to holidaying. Other attractions include traditional ways of life preserved in local customs; rich and varied handicrafts and other colorful products depicting or illustrative of native arts and lifestyle, and the authentic unsophisticated but friendly attitude of many in the Nigerian population. However, many of these attractions are still largely untapped and even at their raw states, they are still being enjoyed by few outsiders, either very rich visitors in quest of exoticism or adventurous people in search of new challenges and experiences. The lack of required modern infrastructural facilities and in some parts of the country acute conditions of underdevelopment and poverty can be seen which many potential Nigeria-bound tourists may not like to be confronted with. These are impediments to tourism, which the new administration has been tackling since the assumption of office. Investors, both foreign and local are therefore called upon to come and invest in the abundant tourism potentials in the country. The richness and diversity of Nigeria’s tourism resources coupled with economic liberalization policies will provide investment opportunities in various areas as follows:
Heritage/Cultural Tourism Resources Development of slave trade relics
Establishment of museums and preservation of monuments
Wildlife Tourism Resources
Development of hiking trails and Jeep tracks in the national parks
Development of picnic and camping sites at strategic locations within the trail circuit system in the national parks
Building of tourist lodges
Building of reception centers at Natural/Physical Attractions
Provision of the cable bus system to take tourists through the very rugged but scenic terrain of the mountains especially in Kanyang, Obudu, and Mambilla Plateau Construction of lodge cabins for expedition tourists and rangers.
Establishment of hotels and resorts near waterfalls, springs, caves, and temperate climate areas such as Obudu, Jos, and Mambila Plateau.
Beach Tourism potentials Establishment of boating a
nd sport fishing facilities
Development of water transportation Provision of educational facilities for water skiing and swimming
Establishment of holiday resorts along the coasts.
Development of Amusement parks, entertainment facilities, and shopping services
The development of arts and crafts constitutes a symbol of the people’s cultural values and love for nature.
Page 3 - Some Business Opportunities
Transportation:- Nigeria has attained a high level of good transportation system especially Airline and Road Transportation, investment opportunities are still needed in water recreation transportation and rail services.
Hospitality:- The hospitality sector of the tourism industry seems to be the most competitive area with the presence of Starwood Hotel Groups, owners of Sheratons, Hilton, Le Meridien, Shangra Lai the Asian Hotel giant in restaurants and many
Beach:- Meanwhile, most of Nigeria’s beautiful beaches locations are still largely without accommodation facilities, which are targets for investors in most tourism destinations across the globe.
Tour Operations:- Like the Europeans and Americas, tour companies invaded the North, South, and East Africa by having tour offices in these regions which enable them to market destinations in their home countries is lacking in the case of Nigeria.
Any Company willing to do so for Nigeria will be highly welcome. local hotel and restaurant groups battling for a better share of the market.
Investment Climate:- Apart from the enormous potentials and investment opportunities in the Nigerian tourism sector, the country’s investment climate at present is one of the most favourable in Africa for a number of reasons, among which is Political Stability.
The enthronement of a viable democratic system, which guarantees political stability, improves international relations, and respects human rights would in various ways enhance investment opportunities in the country.
Tourism Incentives:- The provision of incentives in the 1990 National Tourism Policy was also to enhance private sector participation. These are in the following areas:
Conclusion:- In conclusion, the tourism investment atmosphere in Nigeria is now conducive given the abundant resources available, large market, enthronement of enduring democracy, and a package of incentives put together by the government. Foreign investors and other interested individuals should take these advantages to invest in the Nigerian tourism industry for sustainability and profitable returns.